Toggle navigation Scanftree. Evolution of Microprocessor: Microprocessors were categorized into five generations: first, second, third, fourth, and fifth generations. Their characteristics are described below: First-generation The microprocessors that were introduced in to were referred to as the first generation systems. First-generation microprocessors processed their instructions serially—they fetched the instruction, decoded it, then executed it. When an instruction was completed, the microprocessor updated the instruction pointer and fetched the next instruction, performing this sequential drill for each instruction in turn.
Second generation By the late s, enough transistors were available on the IC to usher in the second generation of microprocessor sophistication: bit arithmetic and pipelined instruction processing. This generation is defined by overlapped fetch, decode, and execute steps Computer As the first instruction is processed in the execution unit, the second instruction is decoded and the third instruction is fetched.
The distinction between the first and second generation devices was primarily the use of newer semiconductor technology to fabricate the chips.
This new technology resulted in a five-fold increase in instruction, execution, speed, and higher chip densities. The third generation came about as IC transistor counts approachedThis generation of microprocessors was different from the previous ones in that all major workstation manufacturers began developing their own RISC-based microprocessor architectures Computer, Fourth generation As the workstation companies converted from commercial microprocessors to in-house designs, microprocessors entered their fourth generation with designs surpassing a million transistors.
Fifth generation Microprocessors in their fifth generation, employed decoupled super scalar processing, and their design soon surpassed 10 million transistors. In this generation, PCs are a low-margin, high-volume-business dominated by a single microprocessor.
Classification of Microprocessor: The microprocessor is identified with the word size of data. For E. The ALU can perform a 4- bit data operation at a time these microprocessor is called as 4-bit microprocessor.What is Embedded System? Embedded Systems are: Unique in character and behavior With specialized hardware and software. A system which is a combination of generic hardware and General Purpose Operating System for executing a variety of applications Contain a General Purpose Operating System GPOS Applications are alterable programmable by user It is possible for the end user to reinstall the Operating System, and add or remove user applications.
A system which is a combination of special purpose hardware and embedded OS for executing a specific set of applications. Performance is the key deciding factor on the selection of the system.
Response requirements are not time critical. May or may not contain an operating system for functioning The firmware of the embedded system is preprogrammed and it is non-alterable by end-user There may be exceptions for systems supporting OS kernel image flashing through special hardware settings Application specific requirements like performance, power requirements, memory usage etc are the key deciding factors Highly tailored to take advantage of the power saving modes supported by hardware and Operating System For certain category of embedded systems like mission critical systems, the response time requirement is highly critical Execution behavior is deterministic for certain type of embedded systems like Hard Real Time systems.
Computer Peripherals: Printers, Scanners, Fax machines etc. Introduction to Embedded System Purpose of Embedded Systems Each Embedded Systems is designed to serve the purpose of any one or a combination of the following tasks. The collected data can be either analog or digital Data collection is usually done for storage, analysis, manipulation and transmission The collected data may be stored directly in the system or may be transmitted to some other systems or it may be processed by the system or it may be deleted instantly after giving a meaningful representation.
Introduction to Embedded System Purpose of Embedded Systems Monitoring Embedded systems coming under this category are specifically designed for monitoring purpose They are used for determining the state of some variables using input sensors They cannot impose control over variables. Introduction to Embedded System Purpose of Embedded Systems Control Embedded systems with control functionalities are used for imposing control over some variables according to the changes in input variables Embedded system with control functionality contains both sensors and actuators Sensors are connected to the input port for capturing the changes in environmental variable or measuring variable The actuators connected to the output port are controlled according to the changes in input variable to put an impact on the controlling variable to bring the controlled variable to the specified range Air conditioner for controlling room temperature is a typical example for embedded system with Control functionality Air conditioner contains a room temperature sensing element sensor which may be a thermistor and a handheld unit for setting up feeding the desired temperature The air compressor unit acts as the actuator.
The compressor is controlled according to the current room temperature and the desired temperature set by the end user. Introduction to Embedded System Purpose of Embedded Systems Application Specific User Interface Embedded systems which are designed for a specific application Contains Application Specific User interface rather than general standard UI like key board, Display units etc Aimed at a specific target group of users Mobile handsets, Control units in industrial applications etc are examples for this.
Introduction to Embedded System Smart running shoes from Adidas The Innovative bonding of Life Style with Embedded Technology Shoe developed by Adidas, which constantly adapts its shock-absorbing characteristics to customize its value to the individual runner, depending on running style, pace, body weight, and running surface It contains sensors, actuators and a microprocessor unit which runs the algorithm for adapting the shockabsorbing characteristics of the shoe A Hall effect sensor placed at the top of the cushioning element senses the compression and passes it to the Microprocessor A micro motor actuator controls the cushioning as per the commands from the MPU, based on the compression sensed by the Hall effect sensor What an innovative bonding of Embedded Technology with Real life needs!!!
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Download Now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Crushing It! Jump to Page. Search inside document. Documents Similar To Classification and purpose of embedded systems.The microprocessor is the main important or the heart of the normal computer. Generally, we will use the microprocessors like Pentium, AMD, power PC, or any other brands and types of microprocessors.
The microprocessor is also called as a central processing unit. The microprocessor is totally computation engine and it is fabricated on the single chip. The Intel has released the first microprocessor in the year and it contains the 4-bit microprocessor and having transistorsbytes of memory addressing modes and with a clock speed of kHz.
The microprocessor is a programmable multipurpose silicon chip, register based, clock driven, it accepts input as a binary data and after the processing, it provides the output data as per the instructions stored in the memory. The microprocessor requires a 5-volt power supply. This microprocessor is also designed by the Intel and the microprocessor has a bit microprocessor with 20 address lines and 16 data lines with storage of 1MB.
The microprocessor consists of a powerful instruction set, which gives the operations like multiplications, divisions easily. The microprocessor has two modes of operations, which are maximum mode and minimum mode of operations. The maximum mode of operation is used for the system having multiple processors.
The minimum mode of operation is used for the system having the single processor. The features of this microprocessor are explained below. The fetch stage can transfer the data in 6 bytes of instructions and stored in a line. The microprocessor consists of transistors and it has vectored interrupts. The microprocessor can be classified into three different types, which are.
The RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer and it is designed to reduce the execution time by using the simplifying the instruction set of computer. In the microprocessor, each instruction set requires only one clock cycle to implement result at a uniform execution time. Therefore, it reduces the efficiency for more lines of code, hence it required an extra RAM to store the instructions.
The compiler is used to convert the high-level language instruction set in a machine language. The following block diagram shows the architecture of the RISC processor and this type of processor is used for the highly optimised set of instructions and the applications of the RISC processor is for the portable devices like Apple iPod due to its power efficiency.
The characteristics of this processor are explained below. Some of the major and important characteristics of RISC processor are below.Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. Swapnil Kaware Instruction Set of Instruction Set of An instruction is a binary pattern designed inside a microprocessor to perform a specific function.
The entire group of instructions that a microprocessor supports is called Instruction Set. Each instruction is represented by an 8-bit binary value. These 8-bits of binary value is called Op-Code or Instruction Byte. Data Transfer Instructions: 1. Data Transfer Instructions These instructions move data between registers, or between memory and registers. These instructions copy data from source to destination without changing the original data.
If the operand is a memory location, its location is specified by the contents of the H-L registers. The contents of the source are not altered. This instruction copies the contents of that memory location into the accumulator.
The contents of either the register pair or the memory location are not altered. It copies the contents of next memory location into register H. The contents of register H are stored into the next memory location. The contents of register L are exchanged with the contents of register E. The contents of H are placed as the high-order byte and the contents of L as the low-order byte. SP is again decremented and the contents of low-order registers C, E, L, Flags are copied into stack.
Arithmetic Instructions: 2. Arithmetic Instructions These instructions perform the operations like: Addition Subtract Increment Decrement Addition: Addition Any 8-bit number, or the contents of register, or the contents of memory location can be added to the contents of accumulator. The result sum is stored in the accumulator. No two other 8-bit registers can be added directly. Example: The contents of register B cannot be added directly to the contents of register C.
The result is stored in accumulator.These are the processors which are designed for some special purposes. Microprocessor Interview Questions. Microprocessor Practice Tests. IT Skills.
Microprocessor - Classification
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Human Resources Skills. Health Care Skills. Finance Skills. All Courses. All Practice Tests. It is a type of microprocessor which is designed in such a way that it can execute set of instructions in a very simple and easy way in order to reduce the execution time.
Using RISC processors, each instruction set undergoes one clock cycle at a time to execute the results. This helps the processor to handle number of instructions at the same time in order to execute the results. This reduces the efficiency due to the number of line codes; hence, it requires more RAM to store the instructions. The compiler also has to put more effort to convert high-level language instructions into machine code.
RISC microprocessor architecture uses highly-optimized set of instructions. It is used in portable devices like Apple iPod due to its power efficiency. It has the design strategy of controlling large number of complex set of instructions in a most efficient way.
It contains single instructions set which perform multi-level operations. It does not execute in one complete cycle. The main emphasis of CISC is to build complex instructions directly into the hardware. Its architecture is designed in such a way that the memory cost is to be decreased because to execute larger programs more storage is required which results in higher memory cost.
In order to resolve this problem, the set of instructions per program is reduced incorporating the number of operations in a single instruction. A coprocessor is a specially designed microprocessor, which can handle a specific function more number of times faster than the ordinary microprocessor. A transputer is a specially designed microprocessor consists of its own local memory and provides connecting link from one transputer to another transputer to maintain inter-processor communications.
A transputer can be used as a single processor system or can be connected to external links, which helps to reduce the manufacturing cost and increases the performance.
This processor is specially designed for the purpose of processing the analog signals into a digital form. This is acquired by sampling the voltage level at regular periodic time intervals and converting the voltage into a digital form. This process is performed by a circuit called an analogue to digital converter, A to D converter or ADC. Microprocessor Tutorial. Job Recommendation Latest. Jobs in Meghalaya Jobs in Shillong. View All Locations.
How to design your resume?💻 - See How a CPU Works
Have you ever lie on your resume?The microprocessor is a multi purpose,programmable semiconductor silicon chip which works all the works performed by the Pc. There are different types of processor according to the use,manufacture company etc.
A lot of other companies also which form mobile processor like motorola,IBM etc. Intel provide a lot of features in thier processro like power management,speed rating etc.
Intel processor adjust thier speed according to demand and u can also overlock thier speed by BIOS basic input output system setting.
On the basis of instruction set two microprocessor. CISC Complex instruction set computing :-It is a slow types processor having more functions like playing games,listening music,editing text and a lot of work. Due to more functioning its speed is slow than that of RISC types processor.
It mainly used in desktop,laptop computing. These types of processor are design for the special and particular functioning like database,server,email client etc. On the basis of insertion there are two processor.
Slot type:-This type of processor is installed in the slot rectangular in shape and used for card type processor. In this type older version like p1,p2 and p3 pentium 3rd generation processor installed which came in like a expansion card package like SECC single edge contact cartidge,SEPP single edge processor package etc.
These all microprocessor entirely covered with the plastic which also contain heat shrink with fan attached to it. Socket type:-The microprocessor which installed in that socket are mainly square in shape. Note:-In previous days processor may damage fast due to pins in it which broke suddenly due to miss handling so its become costlier to change processor than less cost of motherboard that's why ZIF type processor came into picture so that it is easy to change motherboard now than processor which is costlier.
About Mircroprocessor. It is also two types It require some force during installation to.
Classification and purpose of embedded systems
In that,processor has. Email This BlogThis!It is designed to reduce the execution time by simplifying the instruction set of the computer.
Using RISC processors, each instruction requires only one clock cycle to execute results in uniform execution time. This reduces the efficiency as there are more lines of code, hence more RAM is needed to store the instructions.
The compiler also has to work more to convert high-level language instructions into machine code. RISC microprocessor architecture uses highly-optimized set of instructions. It is used in portable devices like Apple iPod due to its power efficiency. It is designed to minimize the number of instructions per program, ignoring the number of cycles per instruction. The emphasis is on building complex instructions directly into the hardware. Its architecture is designed to decrease the memory cost because more storage is needed in larger programs resulting in higher memory cost.
To resolve this, the number of instructions per program can be reduced by embedding the number of operations in a single instruction. These are the processors which are designed for some special purposes. A coprocessor is a specially designed microprocessor, which can handle its particular function many times faster than the ordinary microprocessor. A transputer is a specially designed microprocessor with its own local memory and having links to connect one transputer to another transputer for inter-processor communications.
A transputer can be used as a single processor system or can be connected to external links, which reduces the construction cost and increases the performance. This processor is specially designed to process the analog signals into a digital form. This is done by sampling the voltage level at regular time intervals and converting the voltage at that instant into a digital form. This process is performed by a circuit called an analogue to digital converter, A to D converter or ADC.
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