Get the latest information from CDC coronavirus. The first in a 5-part series, offers an understanding of the brain, how the reward center works, and what happens in the brain when a person uses cocaine, opioids heroinor marijuana.
The objective of the presentation is to inform students high school how 3 drugs of abuse cocaine, opiates, marijuana actually work in the brain.
Neurobiology of cannabis addiction.
The presentation is arranged in 3 sections. The first section introduces the brain and presents some basic neurobiology, the second introduces the reward pathway and the third presents the mechanism of action of each drug and how each affects the reward system.
Introduce the topic of your talk. Indicate that you will explain how the brain basically works and how drugs such as cocaine, opioids and marijuana interact with the brain's normal activities. Tell students that you will introduce the concept of "reward" which is the property that is characteristic of many addictive drugs. Describe the brain as a functional unit; it is made up of billions of nerve cells neurons that communicate with each other using electrical and chemical signals.
Certain parts of the brain govern specific functions. Point to sensory, motor, association and visual cortex to highlight specific functions. Point to the hippocampus to highlight the region that is critical for memory, for example. Indicate that nerve cells or neurons travel from one area to another via pathways to send and integrate information. Show, for example, the reward pathway. Start at the ventral tegmental area VTA in bluefollow the neuronal path to the nucleus accumbens purpleand then on to the frontal cortex.
Explain that this pathway gets activated when a person receives positive reinforcement for certain behaviors "reward". Indicate that you will explain how this happens when a person takes an addictive drug.
Remind the student that pathways are made up of neurons. Describe the anatomy of a neuron soma, dendrites, and axon are marked with text. State that this neuron is real - as viewed through a microscope.
Explain the normal direction of impulse flow. Dendrites and soma receive chemical information from neighboring neuronal axons. The chemical information is converted to electrical currents which travel toward and converge on the soma. A major impulse is produced the action potential and travels down the axon toward the terminal. Point to the terminal. Describe the synapse and the process of chemical neurotransmission. Indicate how vesicles containing a neurotransmitter, such as dopamine the starsmove toward the presynaptic membrane as an electrical impulse arrives at the terminal.
Describe the process of dopamine release show how the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane.His interests include the study of the developmental biology of endocannabinoids and their modifications by maternal cannabis exposure during pregnancy. Her research focuses on vulnerability of adolescent brain to cannabis and on the potential therapeutic effects of phytocannabinoids in autism spectrum disorders.
Her research work is centered on the long-term consequences of adolescent exposure to THC and of the roles the endocannabinoid system in the neurobiology of anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. Andreas Zimmer, a developmental biologist by training, has pioneered the use of gene knockout mice to investigate the role of neuromodulators in the regulation of animal behaviors.
Cannabis in a Changing Brain
His research is focused on the role of the endocannabinoids system as a buffer against the effects of stress. Her research involves understanding variables that influence both the therapeutic potential and adverse effects of cannabis and cannabinoids through double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Her research is focused on mechanisms of functional plasticity in the adult central nervous system and, in particular, the roles of endogenous neurotrophic factors and integrin adhesion proteins in synaptic plasticity.
Her research focuses on elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of THC and nicotine on the brain, which may lead to innovative approaches to treat drug addiction. One of the most cited authors in neuroscience, he holds 25 patents and co-founded two publicly traded companies. Alexa Torrens is a predoctoral trainee at the University of California, Irvine. Her studies on the comparative pharmacokinetics of THC in adolescent and adult mice earned her the title of Highlighted Trainee Author in the July issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Lin Lin is a postdoctoral trainee at the University of California, Irvine, where her research focuses on the effects of adolescent THC exposure on energy metabolism. He examines the neural circuits underlying motivated behavior and addiction. Projects in his lab explore the neurodevelopmental consequences of adolescent THC exposure or of early-life adversity on the brain and behavior, and the subcortical circuits underlying relapse-like pursuit of opioid, cannabinoid, and psychostimulant drugs.
His research is focused on understanding the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression required for long-lasting changes in behavior as related to drug-seeking and drug-associated memory processes. Place the widgets in the Top Extra Area.
Matt Hill University of Calgary in Alberta.Get the latest information from CDC coronavirus. The second in a 5-part series, explores the science behind addiction, describing the brain and reward center, and the action of heroine and cocaine.
The first section introduces the brain and presents some basic neurobiology, the second introduces the reward pathway and the third and fourth present the mechanism of action of heroin and cocaine and how each affects the reward system. Introduce the purpose of your presentation. Indicate that you will explain how the brain basically works and how and where drugs such as heroin and cocaine work in the brain.
Tell your audience that you will discuss the concept of "reward" which is the property that is characteristic of many addictive drugs. The central nervous system is composed of both the brain and the spinal cord. Describe the brain as a functional unit; it is made up of billions of nerve cells neurons that communicate with each other using electrical and chemical signals. Certain parts of the brain govern specific functions. Point to areas such as the sensory bluemotor orange and visual cortex yellow to highlight their specific functions.
Point to the cerebellum pink for coordination and to the hippocampus green for memory. Indicate that nerve cells or neurons connect one area to another via pathways to send and integrate information. The distances that neurons extend can be short or long. For example, point to the reward pathway deep orange. Explain that this pathway is activated when a person receives positive reinforcement for certain behaviors "reward".
Indicate that you will explain how this happens when a person takes an addictive drug. As another example, point to the thalamus magenta. This structure receives information about pain coming from the body magenta line within the spinal cordand passes the information up to the cortex. Tell the audience that you can look at this in more detail.
This is a long pathway, in which neurons make connections in both the brain and the spinal cord. Explain what happens when one slams a door on one's finger. First, nerve endings in the finger sense the injury to the finger sensory neurons and they send impulses along axons to the spinal cord magenta pathway.
Point to each part of the pathway as you explain the flow of information. The incoming axons form a synapse with neurons that project up to the brain. The neurons that travel up the spinal cord then form synapses with neurons in the thalamus, which is a part of the midbrain magenta circle. The thalamus organizes this information and sends it to the sensory cortex bluewhich interprets the information as pain and directs the nearby motor cortex orange to send information back to the thalamus green pathway.The neuroscience of cannabis has advanced at a remarkable pace.
Some knowledge of these effects can be clinically useful, particularly when it comes to predicting the potential effects of excessive THC that your patients may ingest.
To set the scene, recall the big picture: Our brains are composed of billions of neurons that communicate signals to one another via neurotransmitters NTs and whose activity is further mediated by numerous neuroregulators NRs.
There are dozens of types of NTs—some are widely distributed throughout the brain, such as glutamate and GABA, while others work in smaller and more specific brain areas. These include serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine—NTs that we manipulate with many of our psychiatric drugs.
The ECS is an ancient NR system, and contrary to the strong belief of many adolescents and adults, its primary function is not to allow people to get high from smoking joints. Rather, it serves as one of the major neural modulators of the nervous system. When a typical neuron is activated, it releases NTs into the synaptic cleft.
The NTs travel across this tiny gap to bind to a specific receptor on the other side of the synapse. The binding then causes a chemical and electrical process that depolarizes the next neuron, creating an action potential that then activates the next neuron, and so on in a domino effect. This is how garden-variety NTs like glutamate and dopamine work. But neurons need a modulating mechanism—something to put the brakes on neurotransmission so that our brain machinery can be finely tuned.
There are two of them: anandamide named from the Sanskrit word for bliss and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. The building blocks of the endocannabinoids are stored within the postsynaptic neurons.
When an NT activates the postsynaptic neuron, it starts a process that synthesizes endocannabinoids and spits them out into the synaptic space. These endocannabinoids then travel backwards, or upstream, to the presynaptic neuron, where specialized cannabinoid receptors are located.
There are two cannabinoid receptors, called CB1 and CB2. The CB1 receptors live mainly in the brain, while the CB2 receptors are in the immune system. Once the endocannabinoids bind to the cannabinoid receptors, they act to inhibit the neuron from firing. This buffering process affects both excitatory mainly glutamatergic and inhibitory mainly GABAergic circuits. Putting the brakes on a glutamate neuron slows things down.How to Stop Using Marijuana - Recovery 2.0 Protocol - Tommy Rosen
But inhibiting a GABA neuron means reducing inhibition, so it speeds things up.Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly.
Corpus ID: Neurobiology of cannabis addiction. Jain and Y. JainY. Balhara Published Medicine, Psychology Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology. Cannabis has emerged as a common substance of abuse and dependence and the peculiarities associated with this widely available and used substance has triggered substantial research in this field. The earlier held concept of rather benign nature of this compound as a substance of abuse and dependence has changed as a result of the ongoing clinical and research findings.
Cannabis has been found to have multiple physical and mental effects in human beings. View on PubMed. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper. Top 3 of 7 Citations View All Genetic contributing factors to substance abuse: an association study between eNOS gene polymorphisms and cannabis addiction in a Turkish population.
Baransel Isir, M. Nacak, … S. Pehlivan Priyamvada Sharma, P. Murthy, M. Bharath Iranian journal of psychiatry Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: a review. Karila, P. Topics from this paper. Substance of abuse explanation. Other Toxicity Studies: Dependence.
Citation Type. Has PDF. Publication Type. More Filters. Genetic contributing factors to substance abuse: an association study between eNOS gene polymorphisms and cannabis addiction in a Turkish population. Research Feed. View 1 excerpt.Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal substance in the U.
Marijuana use among all adult age groups, both sexes, and pregnant women is going up. At the same time, the perception of how harmful marijuana use can be is declining.
Increasingly, young people today do not consider marijuana use a risky behavior. But there are real risks for people who use marijuana, especially youth and young adults, and women who are pregnant or nursing. People can and do become addicted to marijuana. Brain health: Marijuana can cause permanent IQ loss of as much as 8 points when people start using it at a young age. These IQ points do not come back, even after quitting marijuana.
Mental health: Studies link marijuana use to depression, anxiety, suicide planning, and psychotic episodes. It is not known, however, if marijuana use is the cause of these conditions. Athletic Performance: Research shows that marijuana affects timing, movement, and coordination, which can harm athletic performance. Driving: People who drive under the influence of marijuana can experience dangerous effects: slower reactions, lane weaving, decreased coordination, and difficulty reacting to signals and sounds on the road.
Daily life: Using marijuana can affect performance and how well people do in life. Research shows that people who use marijuana are more likely to have relationship problems, worse educational outcomes, lower career achievement, and reduced life satisfaction. Over the past few decades, the amount of THC in marijuana has steadily climbed; today's marijuana has three times the concentration of THC compared to 25 years ago.
The higher the THC amount, the stronger the effects on the brain—likely contributing to increased rates of marijuana-related emergency room visits.
While there is no research yet on how higher potency affects the long-term risks of marijuana use, more THC is likely to lead to higher rates of dependency and addiction. Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant. Marijuana is a psychoactive drug that contains close to chemicals, including THC, a mind-altering compound that causes harmful health effects.
People smoke marijuana in hand-rolled cigarettes, in pipes or water pipes, in blunts, and by using vaporizers that pull THC from the marijuana. Marijuana can also be mixed in food ediblessuch as brownies, cookies, and candy, or brewed as a tea. People also smoke or eat different forms of marijuana extracts, which deliver a large amount of THC and can be potentially more dangerous. Today, marijuana use is on the rise among all adult age groups, both sexes, and pregnant women. People ages have the highest rate of use.
Marijuana and THC remain illegal at the federal level, even though many states have legalized its use. In states where legal, marijuana is a fast-growing industry with sales to individuals over 21 in retail stores, wineries, breweries, coffee shops, dispensaries, online, as well as grown at home. Video: Marijuana Use while Pregnant or Breastfeeding 43 seconds. Video: Build a Brain 60 seconds.
Video: Virtual Assistant 60 seconds.Cannabis products are everywhere these days. As a growing number of states loosen their medical and recreational cannabis laws, millions of Americans are using the cannabis sativa plant, typically known as marijuanato relax or treat pain, anxiety, insomnia, and other conditions. Yet more data is needed on its impact. She and her team are using cognitive and clinical measures, as well as neuroimaging techniques like functional MRI, to help elucidate how cannabis affects the human brain.
A recent paper that Gruber co-authored underscored these findings using results from a simulated driving test. Neuroimaging has also revealed changes in white matter, the neural fibers critical for efficient communication among brain regions, in early-onset cannabis users. It would be fantastic to know what actually does and does not work for patients over time. The team conducts multiple assessments before participants—who choose their own products—start treatment.
Further testing happens at three, six, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months after their treatment begins. This contrasts with poorer cognitive performance seen among some heavy recreational marijuana users relative to non-users. Patients in this pioneering study have also reported improved mood, energy, and sleep, and reduced use of conventional medications.
What explains these improvements? The MIND program is also conducting medical cannabis research studies involving veterans, women with menstural- and menopause-related problems, and chronic pain sufferers. Patients will receive either a full-spectrum product that is high in CBD and contains other cannabinoids and terpenoids organic compounds that provide aroma, flavor, and may also have their own effects on the body ; a single-extracted compound form of CBD from the same source; or a placebo.
Gruber wants to know whether the full-spectrum version will work better to reduce anxiety, which affects millions of Americans. She remained at McLean and collaborated with McLean researchers throughout her college, graduate, and post-graduate years and then joined the faculty.
Gruber says she is honored and humbled to work with the dedicated patient volunteers in her studies. Cannabis: Used since anciet times, the cannabis sativa plant contains more than chemical compounds, including over phytocannabinoids, which can cause drug-like effects in humans.
Depending on the type of product used, cannabis can be smoked, inhaled, taken by mouth, rubbed into the skin, or mixed into food and beverages. To date, 33 states and Washington, D. On the recreational front, 11 states and D. These plants are both varieties of the cannabis plant.
One variety, marijuana, is cultivated mainly for its psychoactive mind- and mood-altering properties, while another, hemp, has historically been cultivated for industrial purposes, and more recently for therapeutic CBD-based products.
By law, marijuana is defined as a cannabis plant with more than 0. A non-intoxicating cannabis compound that can be extracted from either marijuana or hemp plants.
It is now sold widely online, in stores, and in cannabis dispensaries as pills, oils, lotions, candies, and other products. However, buyer beware! A general term to describe cannabis used for therapeutic purposes.
The Neuroscience of Marijuana
While some patients choose products with high levels of THC, patients very often choose products that are low in THC and higher in CBD or other non-intoxicating cannabinoids, according to Gruber. A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine found strong evidence that cannabis is effective for treating chronic pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and multiple sclerosis spasticity, with pediatric-onset seizure disorder added later, Gruber notes.
The report also found moderate evidence that cannabis is effective for treating a host of other conditions.